El Niño is a large scale oceanographic / meteorological phenomenon that develops in the Pacific Ocean, which is associated with extreme climatic variability; i.e., devastating rains, winds, drought, etc. It is the migration, from time to time, of warm surface waters from the western equatorial Pacific Basin to the eastern equatorial Pacific region, along the coasts of Peru and Ecuador. This condition can prevail for more than a year, adversely affecting economies in both local and global scales.

Tropical cyclones derive their energy from the latent heat of condensation which made them exist only over the oceans and die out rapidly on land. One of its distinguishing features is its having a central sea-level pressure of 900 mb or lower and surface winds often exceeding 100 knots. They reach their greatest intensity while located over warm tropical waters and they begin to weaken as they move inland. The intensity of tropical cyclones vary, thus , we can classify them based upon their degree of intensity. The classification of tropical cyclones according to the strength of the associated winds are as follows:


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